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关于H1N1,你应该知道的

 一.猪流感会有什么症状? 

流感病毒的跨物种性也会使人类感染猪流感病毒,其症状与普通流行性感冒类似,但严重程度却有天壤之别。一般为突然发烧到38度以上,咳嗽,头痛,关节疼痛,鼻塞,全身乏力以及没有胃口。一些感染了病毒的人还会出现流鼻涕,咽喉痛,恶心、呕吐以及腹泻等症状。在以前发现的一些病例中,猪流感还能使人感染肺炎,呼吸出现衰竭,以及健康状况慢性恶化,而也有些患者无任何不适,有些则足以致死。

二.猪流感如何传播?

  猪流感的群间传播主要是以感染者的咳嗽和喷嚏为媒介,在人群密集的环境中更易发生感染,而越来越多证据显示,微量病毒可留存在桌面、电话机或其它平面上,再透过手指与眼、鼻、口的接触来传播。因此尽量不要身体接触,包括握手、亲吻、共餐等。如果接触带有猪流感病毒的物品,而后又触碰自己的鼻子和口腔,也会受到感染。感染者有可能在出现症状前感染其他人,感染后一般在一周、或一周多后发病。小孩的传染性会久一些。此次猪流感病毒呈现的一个特点是,就是对青壮年攻击性强,墨西哥确诊的死者中大多数年龄都在25岁至45岁之间。

三.如何预防猪流感?

第一,保持手部清洁,并用正确方法洗手。以酒精为底的洗手乳或泡沫消毒剂,杀死细菌或病毒的效果非常好。美国“疾病管制中心”(CDC)代理主任贝瑟(Richard Besser)表示:“咳嗽或打喷嚏时要遮住,经常洗手。

第二,减少到公共人群密集场所的机会,对于那些表现出身体不适、出现发烧和咳嗽症状的人,要避免与其密切接触。

第三,养成良好的个人卫生习惯,包括睡眠充足、吃有营养的食物、多锻炼身体勤洗手。有呼吸道感染征状或发烧时,应戴上口罩,并尽早求医。

第四,如外游途中或回程后出现发烧或类似流感的征状,要马上就医,告知医生有关外游记录。

第五,不要随地吐痰,如要吐痰应将分泌物包好,弃置于有盖垃圾箱内。

第六,定期服用板蓝根(可以考虑有一定规律性),大青叶、薄荷叶、金银花作茶饮。

第七,在烹饪特别是洗涤生猪肉、家禽(特别是水禽时)应特别注意。特别是有皮肤破损的情况。建议尽量减少接触机会。(吃猪肉会不会传播猪流感呢?一般说来,目前的H1N1只要不出现变异,加热至71℃就能被杀,市民不必盲目担心。)

 

学校派发人员定期测量体温,是有道理的。如果没有发烧,建议如上:良好的卫生习惯,锻炼身体,饮食营养,提高免疫力,减少人群密集性活动,可规律性服用板蓝根(依个人体质),保持心理稳定,不必恐慌。

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