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很可能是HIV

读 Kary Mullis 《Dancing Naked in the Mild Field》之《结论有待商榷》

2009年9月25号 生物谷发布了一篇名为《人类第一次成功研制抗艾滋“准疫苗”》,在一系列反反复复地探索中,人类取得疫苗突破性的进展。不知不觉中,将思绪拉到1983年(即26年前)的有关HIV的事件上.

《结论有待商榷》主要描述了作者对于当时人类关于“发现医学艾滋病患者曾经遭遇到一种病毒的感染,这种病毒很可能是HIV”,这个问题的争执上,或者说是证实“感染上HIV是ARDS的病因”。

1983年,法国巴斯德研究院的吕克.蒙塔尼耶(Luc Montagnier),发现了一种 RNA逆转录病毒,并且发现这类病毒与在同性恋(主要是艾滋病患者)身上的复杂疾病有关。

1984年,作为Luc Montagnier 的朋友,美国国家卫生研究院的罗伯特.加洛(Robert Gallon),证实了艾滋病的逆转录酶病毒病因学说,即HIV/AIDS假说。

同年,美国国家卫生学院头号人物玛格丽特.赫克勒(Margaret Heaakler )举办了一个记者招待会,将Robert Gallon介绍给记者。加洛文雅地取下他的折叠式太阳镜,向全球新闻界宣布:“先生们,我们发现了艾滋病的病因”。同时,并预言,几年之内艾滋病疫苗与治疗艾滋病的方法将问世。而在当时,HIV/ARDS也只是一种假说。因此,事情就闹得沸沸扬扬了。

同年,里根总统批了约10亿美元启动经费。一时间,凡是宣称做过一点医学研究而暂时无事可做的人全被雇佣了。他们摇身一变,成了艾滋病研究者。(从原文得知)

1986年,Luc Montagnier和Margaret Heaakler分别给这种病毒命名。一个国际委员会为解决他们的所有权之争,统一把这种逆转录病毒被正式命名为人类免疫缺陷病毒,简称HIV。

 而以研究“致癌基因可能是由病毒导入人体并引发癌症”出名的病毒学家,彼得.迪斯贝格(Peter Duesberg),在《国家科学院学报》上以旁观者的身份明智地指出,还没有足够的证据表明这种新病毒的存在。也是因此,彼得被此时走红的艾滋病研究权势集团陷害,被停掉了研究基金,同时也不会再被邀请出席并发表讲话。

 Kary Mullis对Peter Duesberg的描述是这样的:真才实学的科学家。而对Robert Gallon的评价是这样的:尽管缺乏一个科学家的素养,加洛却爬进了权势阶层。

 

在当时,虽然大量流行病学,病毒学,免疫学的数据显示:HIV感染是艾滋病的根本原因。但是,也有人持反对意见,他们认为如果HIV是艾滋病的病因,那么应该满足如下条件:必定存在于患者体内;必定能被分离和纯培养;导入新宿主后可致同样的症状;必定能在已感染的实验宿主中找到。

在开始的时候,确实没有详细的实验和数据来支持HIV/ARDS假说,但随着研究技术的进步,特别是PCR,联合技术培养等的运用,HIV/ARDS研究的新进展显示HIV完全达到上述标准。

   

我们时刻生活在多得数不清的逆转录病毒之中。它们无处不在,可能有着与人类一样漫长的历史。这些病毒肯定有某种存在的理由。HIV不是突然从海地或者热带雨林里跳出来的。它只是在加洛需要以个新职业的时候突然跳到他手里的。它本来就一直存在。一旦你停止只在大城市的街道上寻找,就会发现它遍地都是。

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