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林记(一)

阿。叔本华 《人生的智慧》 第五章第三部分第二十九节 韦启昌译 上海人民出版社 第一版

这一节谈到的是关于人的本质(形而下)。

 

第一.认识人的本质,有两个获得途径。其一:书本文学上对于人的行事描述;其二:对现实生活中人的行事。可以将其一作为其二的说明,或者反过来用其二解释其一,都是很教益的。而我们应该把人的这些特性,纯粹作为我们认识的材料或者说是标本。就好比人类发现H1N1患者的血清标本,而在人类看来,H1N1是卑鄙的,而我们不能动怒,相反的,我们会把它们冷藏起来,因为我们没有办法改变H1N1,只能利用它们研究基因或者疫苗等。

 

第二.“我很早就说过的,这个世界沉浸在罪恶之中:野蛮人互相吞吃对方,文明人则互相欺骗对方,这就是所谓的世道方式。”(见于本节最后一段)

这段思想渗透常人所认为的悲观意味。一个国家的文明史是建立在野蛮史之上的。而一场战争,不过就是抢掠而已,土地和财富甚至文化。战争是无情的事情,而我们基于对这无情事物的严肃对待上,肯定是定义为悲剧的。没有人会说一部严肃战争片是一部喜剧。

世界上有两种人,女人和男人;或者说,文明人和野蛮人。而每个人一生都会做的三件事情:自欺,欺人,被人欺;没有人能逃避得掉,不论你自称野蛮人或者文明人。在雨果给法军上尉巴特勒的回信中谈到:我们欧洲人是文明人,中国人在我们眼中是野蛮人。这就是文明对野蛮所干的事情。《淮南子·道应训》:“夫物盛而衰,乐极则悲。”文明人与野蛮人,如出一辙。

 

第三.叔本华很强调行事在关于人的本质里的重要性,而非外表或者话语。关于这点,在本节的大部分段落里,都有谈到。

外表。因为没有人在这世上会看见头上长角的魔鬼或者身挂铃铛的傻瓜,而每一个人天生就有一副本领挤弄自己的五官,装出心目中的那副模样。用文中一句意大利谚语:没有哪只狗是坏到不会摇尾巴的。

话语。在莎翁和歌德的作品里,每一个人物,哪怕是魔鬼,说出的话都是恰如其分,合乎当时的常理。大自然跟莎翁和歌德是一样的,并不像某些拙劣的文学家。后者是不承认人物特有的思想和话语,并且在文章里大声提醒:注意了,这是个骗子,那是个傻瓜,千万不要上当。

行事。正如塞尼加所言:从小事就可以看出一个人的性格本性。性格是绝对无法改变的,内在原则,一个人只能做出同样的事情,而不可能是别的。因为,一个人会忘记一切,绝对所有的一切,但却不会忘记他的自我,他的本性。

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